Association Of Economic Development Of The Commercial, Business
And Industrial Enterprises in Bulgaria
of Veliko Turnovo Municipality-short description
Turnovo Municipality is situated in central part of
North Bulgaria and it is included in the administrative
and territorial boundaries of Veliko Turnovo district.
Veliko Turnovo is almost in the middle of the distance
between the biggest cities in the country – Sofia,
Varna, Plovdiv and Burgas. Veliko Turnovo Municipality
is the biggest municipality in the district and it is
located on 885 m2.
population of Veliko Turnovo Municipality as to 01.01.2004
is 89 320 persons with permanent address registration,
inhabiting 37 populated areas-three towns and 34 villages
Turnovo is administrative, cultural, educational, economic
center. The Municipality has one of the favorable age
structures for the country /38% age dependence coefficient/.
Municipality has very high proportion of the population
inhabiting the urban areas -81,9%. The density is 102,1
economic profile of Veliko Turnovo Municipality is characterized
with development of modern tourist industry, which provides
cognitive, cultural, congress, rural and ecological tourism.
Structure defining branches are wood processing and processing
industry, electronics, construction works, food industry,
commerce and services.
In social aspect municipality has well developed networks
of educational, health and sports institutions.
historical prerequisites and the tolerance of the local population
formed the diverse character of the population of Veliko Turnovo
Municipality. There are not any towns and villages on the
territory of the municipality with concentration of the existing
The analysis of the unemployment in accordance with the registration
regime of Labour Bureau-Veliko Turnovo illustrates a tendency
towards decrease of the unemployed, indicative is the level
of the unemployment as to 31.12.2004-7,49% which is lower
with comparison to the average of the country.The technical
infrastructure is well developed in respect to electricity
and water supply and communications. Well developed internal
road infrastructure exists, where some of the roads are amortized
and need rehabilitation and repairs.
Turnovo Municipality has relatively good parameters of the
environment. There are ecologically clean territories, which
provide excellent opportunities for ecological agriculture
and production. On the territory of the municipality rich
flora and fauna exists, there are interesting natural sights,
among which mineral springs and protected places.
The rich cultural and historical heritage and the unique natural,
historical and architectural entities constitute Veliko Turnovo
as a remarkable historical, cultural and tourist center. Cultural
monuments, combined in reserves-ensembles, complexes, grouped
sites and single ones. According to the historic period to
which they belong they are: pre-historic, antique, medieval;
and belonging to the time of the National Revival and according
to their scientific and cultural characteristics – archeological,
historical, architectural and constructional, art and ethnographical.
The unique audio-visual show “Tsarevgrad Turnov –
Sound and Light” is the emblem of the city – a
pageant, contributing to the emotional perception of time,
when the city rightfully was ranked next to Rome and Constantinople.
General characteristics of the local economy
difficult period of development and adaptation in 90s the
economy of the municipality makes progress. After 2000 positive
tendencies in the economic development are registered. The
municipality has a potential to be transformed into a model
for sustainable and modern development in correspondence with
the new challenges and requirements of the labour market,
applying the already accumulated resource for development
of “economy of knowledge” For achieving this objective
long-term and purposeful efforts of all community are necessary.
economy of Veliko Turnovo Municipality records diverse branch
and relatively balanced territorial structure. It is characterized
with prevailing share of commerce and services towards industrial
and processing manufacture and agriculture. Their ratio at
the end of 2004 is 6:3:1, as the share of commerce and services
is continuing to go higher with small steps at the expense
of industry and agriculture.
defining branches of the local economy are wood industry and
processing industry, electronics, construction works, food
industry, trade and services. On the territory of the municipality
private and corporative property are prevailing, while there
is lasting tendency to increasing the share of the private
sector at the expense of state and municipal sectors. This
fact contributes to enhance the efforts of all structures
for sector development of small and medium enterprises, stimulating
the local entrepreneurship, sustaining the private sector
by stimulating the awareness, skills, qualification of the
working people in this sector.
The economy falls into three branches-industry, agriculture,
services, as for the period 2000-2003 the relative share of
each of these branches on the basis of gross output records
growth of increase with 41,33% averagely. /agriculture-35%;
flow of foreign investments in the municipality is insufficient-about
1% of total flow for the country. Positive tendency is their
increase with nearly 2,5 times in 2001-2003, which is indicative
for the increase of the attractiveness of he region for foreign
investments, but still they are insufficient to achieve the
necessary technological and infrastructural renovation with
permanent economic consequences for the municipality.
and medium enterprises /SMEs/
a result of the substantial change in the property of the
enterprises-liquidation or splitting in 90s, as well as setting
up new companies, total number of the business units, which
functions in Veliko Turnovo municipality in 2003 is 4 123,
99% from them with prevailing non-governmental management.
During the last years the number of the newly registered companies
is lower and merely one permanent level of active business
units is maintained. The entrepreneurship activity in the
municipality is about the average for the country, which can
be approved with the density of the companies. The number
of the certified enterprises is higher than most districts
in Bulgaria, which is a prerequisite for maintaining and developing
further the activity after the membership of Bulgaria to EU.
The main part of the enterprises in Veliko Turnovo Municipality
in accordance with the employed people falls into SMEs category-99,1%.
The greatest share is that of micro enterprises-90,9%. Small
enterprises records greatest growth during the last years
and the employed people there are 7.12%, while in the middle
enterprises the employed people are a bit higher than 1%.
One of the most dynamically developing branches in the municipality
following the national tendency is “Operations with
immovable property”, where falls 7,3% of the active
Sales net incomes come up to 947 063 thousand BGN. Private
sector has main contribution. There is a tendency of increasing
the share of sales net incomes in private sector for 4-years
Contrary to the aggregated branch group greatest share of
these incomes is of “Trade and services” branch-57%,
which includes wholesale and retail, following “Industry”
branch-23%. Sales net incomes of the provided tourist services
are increased-from 12 545 thousand BGN for the year 2000 to
15 297 thousand BGN for the year 2003.
There is growth of the unemployed in the basic areas of the
economy on the territory of the municipality, as the greatest
employment growth is in the agriculture-15%, following the
services-14% employed and industry-8%. There is a tendency
in increasing the number of employed people in the main sectors
of economy on the territory of the municipality, with growth
and market infrastructure
Veliko Tarnovo municipality the following business structures
branches are set up: Commerce chamber, Veliko Tarnovo Chamber
of commerce and trade, Wine producers chamber, Union of private
entrepreneurs “Vazrajdane” and others.
Veliko Tarnovo municipality follows the tendency of general
validity for almost all the country of the increasing significance
of commerce, as result of the inflow of huge foreign commercial
chains. In small populated areas the problem with the market
infrastructure is treated not as a necessity for enlargement,
but mainly in the direction of European likeliness and enhancement
of accessibility, services providing quality and sites aesthetization.
Town retail markets and the shops network in the municipality
is another element necessary in order to find market for consumer
goods, while there is a tendency to modernize them towards
improvement of the necessary equipment, eco laboratory, information
and other services in compliance with the European practice.
The level of the provided business services is not satisfactory,
although there is a growth during the last years. The employed
in the business services at the municipality for 2003 are
62 per 10 000 citizens, with the figure of 183 per 10 000
for the country. This sector of the municipal economy has
very huge resource for further development in respect to the
rich potential of the municipality and the future membership
of Bulgaria to EU. Evidence of this is the increased investment
in times during the last years.
Development of the information and communication technologies
Comparatively good is the level of using information technologies,
mainly Internet. The number of companies, providing and using
its capacity is continuously increasing, while the network
access is used mainly for market observation and data collection.
In a view to partial researches Internet is used mostly for
marketing monitoring, study and comparison with competitive
companies, data acquisition for new tendencies in the branch.
Many enterprises have their own Internet pages, but only some
of the company web-pages are interactive, most offer products
advertisement, catalogues and price lists without feedback,
small is the number of companies, which offer or use e-commerce.
Basic indicators of the business units /non-financial sector/-commerce,
activity in Veliko Tarnovo Municipality is implemented by public
catering sites, shops network for food and non-food goods, markets,
services studios, offices.
The processes of restructuring and shifting towards market principles,
leading to breaking the monopoly right of the public sector,
are running most intensively in the area of commerce and services.
The distribution of commercial sites is uneven. Shops for food
goods and small public houses exist mainly in small communities
and in the quarters located in the surroundings of the towns
Tourism conditions and resources
Dynamic structural changes occur in the tourist sector, defined
sometimes as “Tourist industry”. The basic share
of tourism still continues to be the recreative and cognitive
tourism, but with more complex and changing dynamically configuration
of the requested tourism types and with great diversity of the
related services with them.
Veliko Tarnovo municipality and the adjacent region have at
their disposal very good potential for the all year development
of diverse tourism forms-they can be defined by the existence
of natural and anthropogenic recreation conditions and resources:
favourable climate forms, unique relief, natural and historical
sights, preserved folklore artistic crafts. The potential of
the town is in the development of modern tourist industry, which
offers cognitive, cultural, congress, rural and eco tourism.
On the territory of the municipality is concentrated one of
the biggest concentrations of cultural and historical monuments
in the country. At the same time most of the rural regions have
no other alternative for development but this type of tourism.
The sustainable development of this type of tourism has the
possibility to enliven the underdeveloped parts of the territory
of the Municipality and to transform them into better place
to live. During the last years the number of the tourists from
Germany, France, England, Israel, Holland, USA, Scandinavian
countries and Japan to Veliko Tarnovo increases. There were
established many agencies, family hotels, guest houses and sports
clubs, which provide services in this area. The estates purchase
in the communities turns to be very popular for the citizens
of Europe. Unfortunately, the successful development of tourism
and its alternative forms is endangered seriously by the lack
of subsidies, from the processes of restitution and other.
Municipality has remarkable tourist attractions, related to
folklore, customs, traditional crafts /for example Samovodska
market place/, as well as periodic and episodic events such
as /fairs, holidays, congress events and others/. The business
visits and meetings are not only source for huge incomes, but
they are developing intensively in the big towns.
The hunting tourism in the region is traditionally well developed.
The fields for hunting in the district are managed mainly by
hunting and fish associations.
Veliko Tarnovo Municipality adopted a program for development
of sustainable tourism in correspondence with the town priorities,
as the town is awarded with a special distinction for sustainable
development of EU for 1997. The municipality has at its disposal
sufficient capacity for accommodation places and sheltering
means, the total amounts to 45. The accommodation fund provides
5508 beds. Catering establishments-585, restaurants-79, snack
bars-209 and cafes-68.
The natural resources as a whole can not be treated as unique
and it their use the municipality faces serious competition
from other municipalities and districts. This fact supposes
combination of both main resources for the formation of integral
product in order to be achieved uniqueness and competitiveness.
In the area of commerce, services and tourism the absolute number
of units has been increased from 2 866 for 2000 to 3144 for
2003, the increase is with 1,096 times and respectively the
sales net incomes are 1,709 times. Long term assets have variable
growth, but the increase of the relative share of the area towards
total long-term assets for municipality is from 45,20 for 2000
to 55,13% for 2003 or they are 9,93%. Increased is the number
of occupied and employed people. These changes illustrate development
of the activities in the area in one positive direction regulated,
either from the increase of long-term assets and by the increase
of units and of the employed people in these activities. The
result is increase of the net incomes from sales with 266 155
thousand BGN in comparison to 2000 and 2003.
annualized from accommodation in Veliko Tarnovo Municipality
in 2003 amount to 2,275 million BGN, which is 0,73% from night
spending in Bulgaria. By using other data for other regions
in Bulgaria, can be assumed that the total amount of the incomes
from tourism is 2 to 2,5 times higher from the accommodation
incomes /4-5 million BGN/, while if the non-included activity
from statistics is assumed, it is possible these incomes to
be times higher /9-10 million BGN/.
Data from Territorial statistical Bureau and National Statistical
Institute confirms the evaluation for the amount of the total
incomes from tourism. At the same time they assigned small
share of tourism in the municipal econonomy-9,4% from the
active companies, but only 1,2 % from sales incomes. Simultaneously
with the small size of the companies, the sector is three
times smaller from the average sales value per one employed
and 2,5 lesser profit per one employed.
traditional connection between the town and the village is
preserved. Well developed is the network of inhabited areas
on the overall territory. The physical environment in the
populated areas is amortized, public utilities and the engineer
network are in poor condition. The production territories
are underdeveloped and they are developed with old fashion
and unattractive and amortized buildings, which can hardly
be modernized and used. The residential complexes are still
under construction and are not developed, the panel buildings
do not meet the regular requirements for living comfort. The
public buildings for culture, education, health care located
in the villages and the non-completed construction of cultural
sites are not in good condition. The public green places are
insufficient, abandoned and they undergo the processes of
Environment state and ecological conditions.
The complex evaluation of the particular factors, reflecting
on the quality of the environment illustrates that Veliko
Tarnovo Municipality is characterized with good quality of
The air quality
Among the factors that cause air pollution on the territory
of the municipality are the car transport, boiler installations
of the industrial enterprises and consumer heating during
the winter period.
At the moment the first stage of the gasification process
of Veliko Tarnovo is towards completion, which will have remarkable
effect in improving the air quality. Large companies –causing
pollution by emitting harmful substances into the ambient
air undergo reconstructions towards shifting to gas because
up to the present moment they use conventional fuel as source
Monitoring on air condition in Veliko Tarnovo is implemented
periodically by monitoring the following air pollutants: sulphur
dioxide /SO2/, nitrogen dioxide /NO2/, ozone, H2S, lead aerosol,
dust and dust-PM 10, as for the period 2001-2004 the following
tendencies can be observed:
average levels of sulphur dioxide keep permanent tendency
towards decrease. The highest level is reached during
the heating period and the basic reason for this is
the work of the local steam –boiler installations
and consumer heating. This pollutant is expected to
have lower level after the gasification of the big towns.
pollutions with nitrogen dioxide are relatively permanent
and are in safe norm. During the period 2001-2004 sporadic
exceeding over the limits are registered in towns as
result of the outdated car park.
average concentrations of H2S have temporary character
due to industrial activities.
tendency towards decrease of the yearly concentrations of
lead aerosols on the territory of the whole region remains
because the production and use of lead petrol has been stopped
and control system over the quality of the used oils is introduced.
Dust particular matter /total suspended particular matter
and dust PM10/ continues to be the most harmful pollutant
on the territory of the municipality, as the tendency is towards
keeping the traditional high level of pollution on the territory
of Veliko Tarnovo. All probes shows exceeding over the average
annual and average daily norm. The cause for the high levels
of dust is that the street network is not cleaned regularly,
as well as the wide use of solid fuel /wood and coal/. On
the territory of Veliko Tarnovo Municipality two stationary
units for air control exist.
impact of industry and agriculture is insignificant and it
is with territorial local scope. Unfortunately there is a
lack of local purging facilities in most industrial enterprises.
As a whole the territory of Veliko Tarnovo Municipality is
with good ecological parameters, which can be characterized
with favourable soil, micro-climate and sanitary conditions.
condition of the surface and ground water of the municipality
depends on the concentration of urbanistic units and industrial
activities, as well as on the extent the sewage and purifying
infrastructure are constructed.
Yantra river has important place in the national network for
surface quality control. The quality composition of Yantra
water and its tributaries is control by monthly monitoring
from the National System for ecological monitoring.
The analysis of the accumulated data illustrates that the
rivers in Yantra basin were with good oxygen regime and indicators
responding to the regulations of water treatment plant.
The surface water in the observed locations were out of the
normal indexes on the following indicators: nitric acid-the
maximum is reached in the summer months, when the high temperatures
quicken the processes of nitrification and denitrification:
phosphates and insoluble substances, because of the direct
flow into the water reservoirs of residual water from the
The share of the water treatment plant for 2003 is scarcely
23.1% for the district. Corresponding to the EU regulations,
there should be constructed new water treatment plants, which
should comply with the European standards and requirements.
The final termination of water pollution of Yantra river from
the non-purified grey water from Veliko Tarnovo will be dissolved
when second urban water treatment plant will be constructed,
for the rest of the populated areas- with the construction
of local water treatment plants for grey water in correspondence
with the EU agreement.
The public and the institutions should be more concerned with
the problems of water pollution, because water is vital resource.
Waste is direct pollutant of air, water and soil, which can
cause immediate risk to human health, therefore solving waste
problems connected with waste management seems to be one of
the serious ecological problems. On other hand waste is valuable
energy and raw material source and waste minimization and
reuse leads to natural resources preservation.
Waste management condition is under improvement by including
great number of populated areas in the organized collection
and transportation of consumer waste and overall equipment
of the populated areas with waste containers. The consumer
waste treatment from Veliko Tarnovo is granted to concession
within 15-years term after completed competition. The main
problem concerning the consumer waste of Veliko Tarnovo Municipality
is Consumer waste depot in Sheremetiya village. The depot
capacity is going to be exhausted very soon. The decision
is Regional depot to be constructed, for this aim a regional
association of 6 municipalities is registered. The alternative
of this decision is the construction of contemporary plant
for utilizing and processing the consumer waste.
The implemented analyses on the territory of Veliko Tarnovo
municipality under the monitoring program of Ministry of Environment
and Water for the period 2001-2004 do not report soils contamination
with heavy metals and pesticides over the permissible concentration.
There are not any agricultural lands, which to be permanently
deteriorated, polluted and inappropriate for agricultural
The use of junk and pesticides is in the norms. Annually examination
is made on the condition of the warehouses and stored unfit
The most significant effect to reduce the harmful effect on
people’s health and the soils contamination is the construction
of Centralized municipal warehouse of forbidden, unfit, with
expired term pesticides and other toxic substances.
To implement the tendency towards ecological environment improvement
all opportunities for environment protection of EU funds,
the enterprise for environment activities management, funds
of republican budget as well as own funds of the municipal
budget will be used.
as factor of the environment is getting to be topical question,
because it can be harmful to man’s physical and mental
state by its permanent and general presence. The unfavourable
acoustic environment of Veliko Tarnovo in the vicinity of
busy roads and highways is based on the increasing car traffic,
inappropriate urban decisions with the lack of self-defence
of the population, insufficient traffic capacity.
In Veliko Tarnovo Municipality the observed places for measuring
the noise level are 30. The accumulated data illustrates that
in most of the observed places the measured noise level exceeds
the admissible sanitary norms of 55-60 decibel.
concerning life conditions exist between the populated areas
of Veliko Tarnovo municipality, regarding the specific character
in their development. Leading is the role of the economic development,
but important is significance of the social factors. Sustainable
human development conception is in the human development index.
Health, education and economic indicators for the development
are stated. The equality of these indicators means that in spite
of the incomes, important is the role of education and healthcare
as correcting factors.
Human development index includes three components: the expected
life expectancy, combined education index /literacy of the population,
enrolling in the three educational grades/ and economic component.
Veliko Tarnovo Municipality is over the average in all indicators,
close to the maximum grades. Regarding the combined educational
index Veliko Turnovo Municipality has the highest educational
index. /6th place in the country/, regarding the economic component-9
place. Veliko Tarnovo municipality is stated as very developed
in accordance with the total index of human development.
averagely per person of household for Veliko Tarnovo Municipality
are higher in comparison with these for the country, while
there is a tendency of increasing their nominal meaning.
basic sources of incomes are salaries, pensions and the
individual farms, while in the structures of the incomes
the share of the incomes of salaries and individual farms
high percentage of the consumer expenses for meal and
for maintaining the households
the demographic development of the municipality the population
in the urban areas is in more favourable condition with
the reproduction potential in comparison to the population
in the rural areas
the town of Veliko Tarnovo is concentrated approximately
76,5% of the population of urban territories of the municipality.
The population of the town is with high labor potential
and high educational level.
educational level of the population of Veliko Tarnovo
municipality is high and is with a tendency towards increasing
the number and the share of highly educated persons. In
Veliko Tarnovo municipality the share of the highly educated
people is higher in comparison to the average level of
result of the economic growth and the effectiveness of the
municipal policy on the employment in Veliko Tarnovo Municipality,
the level of the unemployment in Veliko Tarnovo Municipality
reached the lowest level from 5 years -7,49%. The reported
rates are lower in respect to national level as to November
2004-11,74%. Dominant in the structure of the unemployment
is the group of persons with special secondary education.
Still high is the relative share of the unemployed youth with
secondary education. The lack of competence and practical
skills turned to be the main problem when employing them.
Basic factor for the permanent decrease of the unemployed
people in Veliko Tarnovo Municipality is the municipal policy
directed towards providing jobs, by participation in national
programs and projects on micro and macro level. In terms of
structural reform and the decreasing labor taking productions,
effective passive and active measures are necessary in overcoming
the unemployment, which to preserve the favourable tendency-decrease
of the unemployed citizens of Veliko Tarnovo Municipality.
Veliko Tarnovo Municipality maintains optimized and well functioning
network of schools of general education and professional schools
in the following directions-tourism, economy, light industry,
electronics, construction works.
In the area of high education, Veliko Tarnovo Municipality can
be characterized by Veliko Tarnovo University “St. st.
Cyril and Methodius”, which is the second biggest in Bulgaria
and inherited the educational and cultural traditions of the
prominent Tarnovo School of letters from 14 century. Veliko
Tarnovo Municipality provides education in humanitarian and
economic profiles, in 7 departments: philological, department
of history and law, art, pedagogical, orthodox-theologian, department
of economy and philosophical department. The number of students,
which are educated in Veliko Tarnovo University is over 10 000
in more than 60 subjects. Annually on the occasion of the day
of Bulgarian students, Veliko Tarnovo Municipality awards Academic
award at the rate of 5 000 Euro to a student.
In Veliko Tarnovo is located the biggest and the oldest High
Military School in Bulgaria-“Vassil Levsky” National
military high school.
Important characteristic of the population is its educational
level. The population with high educational level /high, college
and secondary education/ for Veliko Tarnovo Municipality is
53,2% of the population at the age of 7 and older, which is
over the average for the country /52,0%/. For the period between
the last two censuses /1992-2001/ there is absolute and relative
increase of the population with high, high special /college
graduates/ and secondary education. More than half of the people
with high education are in Veliko Tarnovo.
the cultural policy of the municipality, the most important
events with international, national, regional and local significance
can be emphasized:
festival « Balkan folk »
International seminar in painting “Veliko Tarnovo”,
“Miniature graphic” and “Wood plastics”
exhibition of the pedagogues-artists
National bread fair
National commemoration of the Independence day
Municipal festivities of amateur art works and other
basic trend in the work of the local authorities is synchronising
the work of the NGOs on local, regional and national level
and stimulating common initiatives for sustainable partnerships
for the benefit of local communities for developing working
mechanisms for civil participation in the processes of decision
taking and achieving more effectiveness of the local authorities
and the development of the region. On the territory of the
municipality about 62 NGOs are working actively with different
scope of work and missions, although they differ in their
activity they contribute directly or indirectly to local community.
For the period
2000-2004 Veliko Tarnovo Municipality in partnership with
NGOs implemented projects at the total amount of over three
millions in different spheres of public life-health care,
education, social activities, local government, culture and
relations and town-twinning
the period of more than thirty years the Municipality signed
contracts and memoranda for partnership and understanding with
cities and municipalities from all the continents in the world
except Australia. Its sister cities are Toledo-Spain, Krakow-Poland,
Asti-Italy, Poltava-Ukraine, Shopron-Hungary; Tver-Russia,Serres-Greece,Nish-Serbia
and Montenegro,Golden-Colorado – USA, Colognia Tovar-Venezuela,
sq Maika Bulgaria
+359 62 61 93 04
+ 359 62 62 79 97